分析化学1

分析化学:误差预实验数据处理思维导图学习笔记。

误差与实验数据处理error四个概念补充造成误差的原因error and accuracyprecision and deviationabsolute errorrelative errorabsolute deviationaverage deviationrelative mean deviationpopulation standard deviationsample standard deviationCV/RSDrange/spreadstabdard error of mean(平均值的标准偏差=s/√N)Spooled ET124the relationship of accuracy and precisionerror propagation(传播) in arithmetic calculationsSystematic errorRadom errorGross errorInstrumental(reagent) errorMethod errorspersonal errorseliminate空白试验校准仪器和量器校正方法reduce the error of analysisChemical/Instrumental analysism≧0.2g v∈(18,22)ml3-4timesstatistical data treatmentnormal distribution of Radom errorconfidence intervalshypothesishypothesis 显著性检验 单峰性,对称性,有界性 标准正态分布 z=(x-μ)/δδknown/s is a good estimate of δ /N>20 z=(x-μ)/δ CIforμ=x±[(z×δ)/√N]Otherwise t=(x-μ)/s CIforμ=x±[(t×s)/√N](t test) tp,f=[|x-T|/s]×√N (if x and T have systematic error)(F test) F=S大^2/S小^2F,t test单边 table4-4双边 置信度 1-2α可疑测定值的取舍Q=(Xn-Xn-1)/(Xn-X1)Reportsignificant Figures修约:四舍六入五留双,五后有数则进位,五后无数看前方,前为奇数则进位,前为偶数则舍光log4.000×10^-5=-4.3979 antilog12.5=3×10^12
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  • 误差与实验数据处理 —— 作品大纲

    • error
      • 四个概念
        • error and accuracy
          • absolute error
          • reduce the error of analysis
            • Chemical/Instrumental analysis
            • m≧0.2g v∈(18,22)ml
            • 3-4times
          • relative error
        • precision and deviation
          • absolute deviation
          • reduce the error of analysis
            • Chemical/Instrumental analysis
            • m≧0.2g v∈(18,22)ml
            • 3-4times
          • average deviation
          • relative mean deviation
          • population standard deviation
          • sample standard deviation
          • CV/RSD
          • range/spread
      • reduce the error of analysis
        • Chemical/Instrumental analysis
        • m≧0.2g v∈(18,22)ml
        • 3-4times
      • 补充
        • stabdard error of mean(平均值的标准偏差=s/√N)
        • Spooled ET124
        • the relationship of accuracy and precision
        • error propagation(传播) in arithmetic calculations
      • 造成误差的原因
        • Systematic error
          • Instrumental(reagent) error
          • eliminate
            • 空白试验
            • 校准仪器和量器
            • 校正方法
          • Method errors
          • personal errors
        • Radom error
        • Gross error
    • statistical data treatment
      • normal distribution of Radom error
        • 单峰性,对称性,有界性
        • 标准正态分布 z=(x-μ)/δ
      • confidence intervals
        • δknown/s is a good estimate of δ /N>20 z=(x-μ)/δ CIforμ=x±[(z×δ)/√N]
        • Otherwise t=(x-μ)/s CIforμ=x±[(t×s)/√N]
      • hypothesishypothesis 显著性检验
        • (t test) tp,f=[|x-T|/s]×√N (if x and T have systematic error)
        • (F test) F=S大^2/S小^2
          • 单边 table4-4
          • 双边 置信度 1-2α
        • F,t test
      • 可疑测定值的取舍
        • Q=(Xn-Xn-1)/(Xn-X1)
    • Report
      • significant Figures
        • log4.000×10^-5=-4.3979 antilog12.5=3×10^12
      • 修约:四舍六入五留双,五后有数则进位,五后无数看前方,前为奇数则进位,前为偶数则舍光